There are a total of more than 2000 substances in the beer, that derive from the malt, hops, yeast and water. It is also a well known fact that their effect as a whole is more than the sum of the effects of the individual substances. Now, what are the most important ones of these substances?
HOPS - Beer is the only beverage containing hops. Hops are mild sedatives, and contain bitters that stimulate appetite. At the end of the growing process, hops contain some quantities of oestrogen. But because of the low dosage and the proper boiling process, beer is practically free of oestrogen.

.Grown hops flowers
MALT -  Malts contribute carbohydrates, protein compounds, minerals and trace elements, vital organic acids and vitamins to beer.
PROTEINS - Although beer is low in proteins, it contains all essential and many non-essential amino acids. Beer is thus perfectly suited as a dietary supplement in a low-protein diet. Because of this, beers from 100% malt are superior to beers from unmalted cereals (corn, rice, etc.).
CALORIFIC VALUE - With about 160 kcal per pint, it has lower calories than apple juice, milk and Cola drinks.

Barley before harvest
MINERALS - Beer contains more than 30 minerals and trace elements which largely originate from malt. Two pints or one liter of beer almost covers half the adult daily requirement of magnesium, 40% of phosphorus and 20% of potassium daily requirement. On the other hand, beer is very low in sodium and calcium.
VITAMINS - Beer contains all important B-vitamins, also vitamins A, D and E. For instance, two pints or one liter of beer covers 35% of the daily requirement of vitamin B6, 20% of the requirement of B2 and 65% of the requirement of Niacin. The same amount of beer contains about 200 mg vitamins and vitaminoid compounds which originate mainly from malt.

Malted barley
WATER - Accounts for about 92% of the beer. The thirst-quenching effect of beer is due to its high water content and its minerals among others.
ALCOHOL - A pint of beer contains about 16 grams of alcohol. According to extensive studies, alcohol has many faces: it is food and fuel, cleansing and analgesic agent, a stimulant and sedative, an agent that promotes well-being, and it can also lead to addiction.
POLYPHENOLS - The polyphenol content of beer is about 150 mg per liter, which is relatively high. They are effective against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Comparable quantities occur also in coffee, tee and red wine.

Water is the largest ingredient of beer
YEAST - The yeast is responsible for the organic changes in the beer. During these processes, alcohol and carbon dioxide is generated. Yeasts are constituted of proteins, enzymes, vitamins (especially B-complex, vitamin-D) and minerals.
CARBON DIOXIDE - About 1/2 % by weight on average is measured in beer. Carbon dioxide is a significant contributor to the refreshing effect of the beer.


Right: Top fermenting yeast in an open fermenter
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