There are a total of more than 2000 substancesin the beer, that derive from the malt, hops, yeast and water. It is alsoa well known fact that their effect as a whole is more than the sum ofthe effects of the individual substances. Now, what are the most importantones of these substances?
HOPS - Beer is the only beverage containinghops. Hops are mild sedatives, and contain bitters that stimulate appetite.At the end of the growing process, hops contain some quantities of oestrogen.But because of the low dosage and the proper boiling process, beer is practicallyfree of oestrogen.

.Grownhops flowers
MALT -  Malts contribute carbohydrates,protein compounds, minerals and trace elements, vital organic acids andvitamins to beer.
PROTEINS - Although beer is low in proteins,it contains all essential and many non-essential amino acids. Beer is thusperfectly suited as a dietary supplement in a low-protein diet. Becauseof this, beers from 100% malt are superior to beers from unmalted cereals(corn, rice, etc.).
CALORIFIC VALUE - With about 160 kcalper pint, it has lower calories than apple juice, milk and Cola drinks.

Barley before harvest
MINERALS - Beer contains more than 30minerals and trace elements which largely originate from malt. Two pintsor one liter of beer almost covers half the adult daily requirement ofmagnesium, 40% of phosphorus and 20% of potassium daily requirement. Onthe other hand, beer is very low in sodium and calcium.
VITAMINS - Beer contains all importantB-vitamins, also vitamins A, D and E. For instance, two pints or one literof beer covers 35% of the daily requirement of vitamin B6, 20% of the requirementof B2 and 65% of the requirement of Niacin. The same amount of beer containsabout 200 mg vitamins and vitaminoid compounds which originate mainly frommalt.

Malted barley
WATER - Accounts for about 92% of thebeer. The thirst-quenching effect of beer is due to its high water contentand its minerals among others.
ALCOHOL - A pint of beer contains about16 grams of alcohol. According to extensive studies, alcohol has many faces:it is food and fuel, cleansing and analgesic agent, a stimulant and sedative,an agent that promotes well-being, and it can also lead to addiction.
POLYPHENOLS - The polyphenol content ofbeer is about 150 mg per liter, which is relatively high. They are effectiveagainst cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Comparable quantities occuralso in coffee, tee and red wine.

Water is the largest ingredientof beer
YEAST - The yeast is responsible for theorganic changes in the beer. During these processes, alcohol and carbondioxide is generated. Yeasts are constituted of proteins, enzymes, vitamins(especially B-complex, vitamin-D) and minerals.
CARBON DIOXIDE - About 1/2 % by weighton average is measured in beer. Carbon dioxide is a significant contributorto the refreshing effect of the beer.


Right: Top fermentingyeast in an open fermenter
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